Insecticide: what is it and how does it work?

Although I graduated in "Human Pharmacy," fly killer I have read a few books on pesticides by chance.

Further, pesticide science and pharmacy, cockroach insecticide spray as well as veterinary medicine, are related disciplines. Many foreign pharmaceutical companies are also pesticide and veterinary drug companies, such as Novartis, Bayer, and Takeda Pharmaceuticals. As well as Mitsui Chemical in Japan and Jiangsu Suhua in my dynasty, there are some pesticide companies without a strong pharmaceutical background.

Insecticides come in many varieties, mosquito killer each with its own mechanism of action.

If you have chemistry, you can read all the answers. Otherwise, read boldface.

Insecticides can enter insects in four different ways: by touch, stomach poison, fumigation, and ingestion. From the name, it is clear that touch is directly applied to the insect; stomach poison is eaten; fumigation is the process by which the drug enters the insect's spiracles and kills it; Endorption is the most unique - when a pesticide is absorbed by a plant and then enters the insect's body, killing it once it has eaten it.

There are different types of pesticides, and many pesticides only have one or more of the above four effects.

Pesticides have been around for four generations, and possibly five.

Pesticides of the first generation include inorganic pesticides, arsenic preparations, copper preparations (Bordeaux liquids, as in the middle school chemistry book), and some native plant insecticides;

The second generation of synthetic pesticides: organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate, and pyrethrin, which target broad spectrum, acute neurotoxicity, and rapid killing;

The third generation consists of growth regulators, juvenile hormones, which interfere with normal insect growth; and insecticides.

We can significantly curb the next generation of insect populations in China by using pheromones, antifeedants, which directly regulate the behavior and activity of insects;

Insect "mind control agents," for example, do not kill insects, but only repel them defensively.

As of now, the second, third, and fourth generation pesticides are mainly mixed as follows:

Pesticides containing organochlorines.

There are two categories of organic chlorine, one of which prohibits the use of phenyl DDT (666), generally believed to pollute the environment, causing harm to humans and animals. The second category is newer non-phenyl pesticides, including toxaphene and endosulfan, currently the most widely used pesticide. Endosulfan has also been banned, and no new varieties of organochlorine pesticides are currently available.

Sulfan (endosulfan)

Nervous agents such as organochlorines act on all parts of the nervous system of insects. DDT is an axon sodium channel agonist; 666, when acting on synapses, causes excessive release of acetylcholine, causing insects to be in an abnormal state of excitement for a long time and eventually die.

Pesticides containing organophosphorus.

Dichlorvos is an organophosphorus insecticide, and it belongs to the category of organophosphorus insecticides.

As an example, domestic animals can eat gastrointestinal insect repellent naphthalene peptide phosphorus, but not fast phosphorus;

Secondly, thiophosphate is less toxic than phosphate, and it has good chemical stability. Now, the most important feature of it is that it absorbs phosphorus internally;

The Systox

(It should be noted that endophosphorus is a mixture of sulfur and sulfur, whereas parathion is more suitable for typical sulfur-phosphorus pesticides:

As a result of its lower toxicity, dithiophosphate esters are now the fastest growing class. Insecticides with low toxicity, such as malathion, do not have an absorption effect and can only affect insects, but will be rapidly hydrolyzed by phosphatase once they enter warm-blooded animals' bodies and lose some of their toxicity. In the field of asymmetric synthesis and pesticide science, researchers are currently focusing on ternary asymmetric organophosphates in dithiophosphates.


Dithiophosphate esters are activated by modification, not to mention;

The famous methamidophos is a derivative of phosphoramidic acid;

6) Meflon: Meflon isn't used as much as it once was;

Pepper flavor octamethylphosphorus is one of the 7 pyrophosphate derivatives;

Trichlorfon belongs to this class of phosphonates (not phosphate, but phosphonate);


Only clodronate can be used with 9 phosphonates.

Because there are many types of organophosphorus pesticides, their toxicity mechanism is more complex than that of organochlorine pesticides.

Essentially, the goal is to disrupt the nervous system and prevent cholinesterase from functioning. This results in excessive stimulation and eventual death of the insect. However, as humans have similar neuroconduction processes as insects, early organophosphorus pesticides posed a threat to our health and that of animals, causing acute organophosphorus poisoning (aOPP). As a result, current research on organophosphorus pesticides focuses on finding ones that can be quickly metabolized by the human body to minimize harm to both humans and livestock.

Insecticides containing carbamates.

Physostigmine is one of the earliest aminogenic formates.

The physostigmine

Over the next few decades, a number of carbamate insecticides emerged and established themselves, including physostigmine, which was synthesized in 1935. The most important property of carbamates is that they are particularly suitable for use as agricultural pesticides. As well as being highly absorbent, carbamates do not have residual toxicity. However, there are also some obvious disadvantages to some carbamate insecticides.

Additionally, carbamate inhibits cholinesterase (but not in the same way as organophosphorus pesticides). While organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides are easy to make resistant to, it is important to change varieties often when using them.

The pyrethroids.

In the past, pyrethroid insecticides were the preferred option for home use. These synthetic compounds are derived from natural pyrethroids found in certain plants. Compared to older insecticides, pyrethrum is highly toxic and only a small amount is needed for effective pest control. It has a broad range of effectiveness, poses low risk to mammals, does not harm the environment or lead to long-term health problems, making it an ideal choice among insecticides.